[GRASS-user] negative slope values and movement costs

Miguel Correia miguellage.rc at gmail.com
Thu Feb 1 11:36:50 EST 2007

```Hello Michael.

I understand your point. R.walk does create anisotropic cost movements in
one-way travel, in the sense that calculates differently downhill and uphill
costs. The problem is that it is based on Naismith's algorithm. For the
modeling I'm trying to produce, will generate more accurate results another
algorithm: Tobler's one.

I guess I already have resolved the problem. In Tobler's hiking function, in
average, there is a difference of 1km/hr in the same slope value, positive
or negative. For example, at 10º is estimated 3Km/hr and at -10º, 4km/hr.
This means that the difference between them is an average distance value of
500 meters, which in kilometers is expressed 0.05Km. This is the number that
Tobler sums to the positive slope value to calibrate the anisotropic cost
movement. For each positive slope value, there is an increment of 0.05km to
get the average value of its correspondent negative value. This is the
algorithm:

6* exp (-3.5 * abs(Slope + 0.05))

And it's logic: if we sum in map algebra, let's say, a cell value of 10º of
a 'positive slope surface' and the correspondent value in a 'negative slope
surface', -10º, we would get 3km/hr in the first case and 4km/hr in the
second case: what is the average? 0.05Km!!!

Miguel.

2007/2/1, Michael Barton <michael.barton at asu.edu>:
>
> R.cost creates an isotropic cost surface. If a slope map is used to create
> a
> cost surface using r.cost, All slopes of the same magnitude have the same
> costs (i.e., the cost is the same whether you are going uphill or
> downhill).
> This can be OK for 2-way travel (out and back), but can be problematic
> when
> calculating 1-way costs.
>
> As I understand it, r.walk will calculate an anisotropic cost surface--i.e
> .,
> such that uphill and downhill costs are calculated differently. It also
> allows for inclusion of an additional friction surface to weight costs and
> input of coefficients to automatically calculate walking (or theoretically
> other) energy costs.
>
> Multiplying a slope map by -1 would only make all slopes negative rather
> than leaving some positive and some negative. You could multiply by a
> function of the aspect to make upslope positive, downslope negative, and
> 'aroundslope' in between.
>
> However, what is uphill and what is downhill will depend on the specific
> route. That is, the uphill direction will vary depending on the direction
> of
> travel outward from a point of origin. I believe that r.walk takes this
> into
> account.
>
> Michael
>
>
> On 2/1/07 1:40 AM, "Gerald Nelson" <gnelson at uiuc.edu> wrote:
>
> > Why do you want negative slope values?
> >
> > What r.cost does is calculate the smallest cost of moving over a
> friction
> > surface, which could be slope, to one or more destinations.
> >
> > The manual for the command is here.
> >
> > http://grass.itc.it/gdp/html_grass63/r.cost.html
> >
> > Jerry
> >
> > ---- Original message ----
> >> Date: Thu, 1 Feb 2007 09:05:33 +0100 (CET)
> >> From: mlage at usal.es
> >> Subject: Re: [GRASS-user] negative slope values and movement costs
> >> To: grassuser at grass.itc.it
> >>
> >> Thank you Jerry.
> >> How does r.cost produce negative slope values?
> >>
> >> Miguel
> >>
> >> _______________________________________________
> >> grassuser mailing list
> >> grassuser at grass.itc.it
> >> http://grass.itc.it/mailman/listinfo/grassuser
> > Gerald Nelson
> > Professor, Dept. of Agricultural and Consumer Economics
> > University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
> > office: 217-333-6465
> > cell: 217-390-7888
> > 315 Mumford Hall
> > 1301 W. Gregory
> > Urbana, IL 61801
> >
> >
>
> __________________________________________
> Michael Barton, Professor of Anthropology
> School of Human Evolution & Social Change
> Center for Social Dynamics & Complexity
> Arizona State University
>
> phone: 480-965-6213
> fax: 480-965-7671
> www: http://www.public.asu.edu/~cmbarton
>
>
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>
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